Tag Archives: Synology DiskStation RackStation

Synology Inc. is a Taiwanese corporation that specializes in network-attached storage (NAS) appliances. Synology’s line of NAS is known as the DiskStation for desktop models, and RackStation for rack-mount models. Synology’s products are distributed worldwide and localized in several languages.

How to Install Nextcloud on Synology

Nextcloud installation and deployment on Synology DiskStation.

Synology Diskstation comes with many packages pre-installed, more additional packages can be installed from the DSM Package Manager. If you want to have Nextcloud on the Synology NAS, you still have to proceed manually. Here it is described how to deploy Nextcloud on a Disksation in a few steps. This should be possible with any Synology DS or RS series.

How it’s done

CalDAV Integration
Protection and Configuration

To prepare, some service packages must be installed as usual from the DSM Package Center.

Synology DSM Package Center


The php 5.6 and PHP 7.0, Apache 2.4, phpMyAdmin, MariaDB and Web Station packages are installed.

The terminal access to Synology DS is required, how to activate the SSH daemon, is in the post here.

In order to be able to log in to diskstation as root with PuTTY, you need the following command to activate root access. Or you can run sudo in each case.

$ sudo synouser -setpw root password

Download from Nextcloud and unzip the ZIP archive with subsequent owner and rights assignment. The Document_Root here is /volume1/web/nextcloud.

$ cd /volume1/web
$ curl -O https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/latest.zip
7z x latest.zip
$ chown -R http:http nextcloud
$ chmod -R 0777 nextcloud

A MySQL root password must be assigned.

$ mysql -u root -ppassword
ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'newpassword';

The MySQL-root password can of course also be changed from the DSM.

Reset MariaDB Password

Now the DSM Web Station is opened to create the web server configuration and a virtual host.

Synology DSM Web Station

Web Station General Settings

Synology Web Station General Settings

Web Station PHP settings. The PHP open_basedir field must be none.

Synology DSM Web Station PHP Settings

Web Station Create Virtual Host.


Now the URL can be opened in the Bowser https://ip_adresse_od_hostname/nextcloud

Create a Nextcloud administrator account

The administrator account can be any name, it is not related to the Synology users. MySQL/MariaDB is selected, the MySQL-root password is the previously assigned password.

After about 2 min. the installation is completed and the intro page appears.

If our own Nextcloud is to be accessible from the Internet, a static NAT port forwarding to the internal Synology Diskstation on the firewall must be made. Furthermore, the file config.php located under nextcloud/config must be adapted. In the array, another line is added with our FQDN, which was previously entered in the DNS zone foo.io.

$CONFIG = array (
'instanceid' => 'lckfp7we8ddv',
'passwordsalt' => '&9p40M+uM3cZBPrWKwV)EEwSoPtvJ',
'secret' => 'klkajd8&DF3A.$=o?pqHAR4@+LXD6n-LaQhbfgt&/H',
'trusted_domains' =>
array (
0 => '',
1 => 'nextcloud.foo.io',
'datadirectory' => '/volume1/web/nextcloud/data',
'overwrite.cli.url' => '',
'dbtype' => 'mysql',
'version' => '',
'dbname' => 'nextcloud',
'dbhost' => 'localhost',
'dbport' => '',
'dbtableprefix' => 'oc_',
'dbuser' => 'oc_admin',
'dbpassword' => 'LeG2iRzcvc1XT8mpoGntS18GeYXGi3',
'installed' => true,
'mail_smtpmode' => 'smtp',
'mail_smtpauthtype' => 'LOGIN',
'mail_from_address' => 'noreply',
'mail_domain' => 'foo.io',
'mail_smtphost' => 'smtp.mailer.io',
'mail_smtpport' => '25',
'maintenance' => false,

CalDAV Integration

With CalDAV Synchronizer for Outlook it is possible to easily synchronize the Outlook calendar, the address book and the tasks, so that every desktop and mobile client is integrated via the private Nextcloud.

The free Outlook plugin from the University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien, which synchronizes between Outlook and CalDAV Server, supports the Outlook versions 2019, 2016, 2013, 2010 and 2007. The download is available on Github and at Sourceforge.

Protection and configuration

To secure synology DS accessible from the Internet, access rights should be restricted with the following chmod command:

$ cd /volume1/web
$ chmod -R o-w nextcloud

Furthermore, HTTPS should be used, Nextcloud recommends making the following setting on the Apache web server configuration:

$ vi /usr/local/etc/apache24/sites-enabled/httpd-vhost.conf

This redirects the call to the web page from http to https (SSL), in the Virtual Host Configuration under Add ServerName:

<VirtualHost *:80 *:443>
   ServerName nextcloud.foo.io
   Redirect permanent / https://nextcloud.foo.io/

In order for an HTTP connection to be rejected when trying to establish an HTTP connection, the module can be added mod_headers.c.

<VirtualHost *:80 *:443>
    ServerName nextcloud
    SetEnv HOST nextcloud
    DocumentRoot "/volume1/web/nextcloud"
    <IfModule dir_module>
        DirectoryIndex  index.html index.htm index.cgi index.php index.php5
    <IfModule mod_headers.c>
        Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15552000; includeSubDomains"
    <Directory "/volume1/web/nextcloud">
        Options MultiViews FollowSymLinks ExecCGI
        AllowOverride All
        <IfModule authz_core_module>
            Require all granted

The search engine crawlers should be informed that our Nextcloud website should not be indexed. The text file robots.txt is located in the document root, in the directory /volume1/web/nextcloud.

cat << EOF > robots.txt
User-agent: *
Disallow: /

Use Copy Paste to create the robots.txt text file.

For performance optimization, the PHP opcache can be configured. Add the values to the PHP configuration user-settungs.ini as follows:

cat << EOF >> /volume1/@appstore/PHP5.6/usr/local/etc/php56/conf.d/user-settings.ini

By copy pasting in the user-settings.ini file.

Now the Synology DS only needs to be restarted for the configuration to be active.


With Apache 2.4 and PHP 7, Nextcloud runs a lot more performantly, so it is recommended to run the Web Station for the Virtual Host of Nextcloud with the current Web Services.

Synology Virtual Host for Nextcloud

Enable Synology SSH root Login

Synology from DSM 6 offers the possibility like for Linux experts to use the SSH terminal, able to login as root. NAS are mostly behind firewalls and cannot be reached from Internet side via SSH, login as a user with subsequent “sudo su root” is considered as an additional effort. However, there is the option of logging in as root, as shown below.

First, the DSM Control Panel is called up, Extended mode must be activated so that the required icon Terminal & SNMP appears.

Enable Synology SSH root Login, Synolog DSM Control panel
Control panel

Under Terminal & SNMP the SSH-Service just can enable.

SSH-Service enable
SSH-Service enabled

Now establish an SSH connection to the Synology Diskstation using PuTTY or KiTTY and log in as admin, then change the root password.

sudo synouser -setpw root admin_passwort

Instead of admin_password, enter the same admin password that is used when logging in to Synology DSM.

Synology root Login

A message appears that you should respect privacy and be careful when typing. With great power comes great responsibility.

We trust you have received the usual lecture from the local System
Administrator. It usually boils down to these three things:

    #1) Respect the privacy of others.
    #2) Think before you type.
    #3) With great power comes great responsibility.


  The password must be confirmed a second time for security.

Configure Synology SSH service to enable root login.

sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Synology SSH sshd_config

Modify by press the i key the option #PermitRootLogin prohibit-password marked as a comment line by removing the # beforehand and set to yes.

PermitRootLogin yes

Save in vim with press the ESC key and hit ZZ (uppercase).

Now restart the DiskStation, or deactivate and reactivate the SSH service in the Control Panel, the change will take effect, now root@diskstation can log in directly to the Synology NAS.

  If you want to log in as root with WinSCP, the transmission protocol SCP (not SFTP) must be selected.

WinSCP Session Settings